Philosophy of Law


Law is the set of rules that govern behavior and are enforced by governmental and social institutions. However, the exact nature of law has been subject to debate. Some have described law as a science, while others see it as the art of justice. It can be applied in many different ways. The goal of law is to protect human life and freedom.

Principles of the inner morality of law

Fuller argued that the internal principles of law constitute a morality. He maintained that laws are necessary to ensure social order and respect human autonomy. He also argued that no system of rules achieves morally valuable goals without at least minimally observing certain principles of legality. Fuller’s position was controversial at the time but it has gained a renewed interest in legal philosophy.

Fuller lays out eight principles that govern the operation of a legal system. These principles are built into the existence conditions of law and are thereby its intrinsic efficacy conditions. In other words, a legal system is only as good as its ability to meet these principles.

Legal positivism

Legal positivism is the philosophical position that laws should be followed regardless of moral considerations. This view holds that laws are necessary to maintain society’s order. However, there are some conditions that should be met before laws are considered valid. These include justice and fairness. While legal positivists are opposed to natural law, they do not reject natural law as a possibility.

Legal positivism is an important part of legal philosophy. It stresses the normative and systematic nature of law. Philosophers such as Hans Kelsen, H.L.A. Hart, and Joseph Raz have contributed to the development of legal positivism. However, the views of these philosophers have influenced the philosophy of law in various ways.


Formalism in law has two main aspects: descriptive and normative. The former is a normative theory, while the latter is a descriptive theory. The two tend to overlap in different ways, but both are important. Formalism in law aims to explain the relationship between legal norms and the law.

Formalism is a positive force in the legal system. It provides rules, and can serve as a standard of lawfulness for a society. This standard can be public knowledge, or it can be the subject of intersubjective agreement.

Legal realism

Legal realism is a naturalistic approach to law. It holds that law should be modeled on natural sciences, which use empirical evidence to form hypotheses. These hypotheses then need to be tested against the observed world in order to be confirmed. This view is common in science, and is particularly prevalent in the philosophy of science.

Legal realism has many critics. Some claim that it is too simplistic. Others claim that it overstates the ambiguity and gap between legal concepts and real-world decisions. While legal realists tend to oppose formal logic and mechanical thinking, they do concede that laws can sometimes be difficult to explain.

Rule of law

Rule of law is a political philosophy that holds all institutions and citizens accountable to the same laws. It is a key component in democratic governments. It protects individuals and prevents corruption. It also guarantees equality in justice. Its supporters claim that the rule of law will make the world a better place. In addition, it will ensure that a nation’s citizens and leaders will be held to the highest standards.

The concept of rule of law has a long history, dating back to ancient Greece. In recent decades, it has become a popular topic for debate. In fact, former U.S. Supreme Court Justice Anthony M. Kennedy has said that when he was studying law at law school in the 1950s, he had never heard of the term rule of law.