Automobiles are self-propelled vehicles that travel on two, four or all four wheels. They can be small, like motorcycles and scooters; or large, such as trucks or buses. They can be powered by gasoline, diesel or steam engines.
The development of the automobile began in Europe in the 1870s with Siegfried Marcus’ invention of an internal combustion engine fueled by gasoline. It was later improved by Karl Benz and Nicolaus Otto.
A modern automobile has a water-cooled, piston-type internal-combustion engine that may be a single-cylinder, a two- or three-cylinder, or an overhead-camshaft design. It is usually mounted in the front of the vehicle and its power may be transmitted to the front or rear wheels. Other alternatives include air-cooled engines and those utilizing battery-powered electric motors.
Brakes are an important part of an automobile’s system that stops and slows the vehicle. The brake uses a friction mechanism that causes a stationary surface to rub against the moving surfaces of the wheels.
Vehicles are designed with the user in mind, and many feature features that make driving easier or more convenient. Depending on the vehicle, these may include automatic transmissions (allowing a driver to change gears without stopping), cruise control, steering wheel-mounted controls and power windows.
Cars often have seats for the driver and passengers, and can be equipped with radio, air conditioning, heaters or other comfort systems. They also have safety equipment, such as seatbelts and headlights that warn drivers of cars in their path or obstacles on the road.
New models for automobiles are typically developed over a period of several years. The goal is to respond to public needs and preferences, incorporating styling that reflects the aesthetics of society at the time.
Early in the twentieth century, Henry Ford revolutionized automobile production with his invention of the mass-production assembly line. It reduced the number of components needed for the vehicle and eliminated skilled fitters, allowing for larger quantities to be produced by a single worker.
As a result, the cost of producing automobiles became lower. This led to the rise of automobile manufacturing as a thriving industry.
Unlike other industrial products, cars can be produced in large numbers by a few companies. For example, Toyota and Nissan are Japanese automobile companies that began as non-automotive manufacturers and then switched to building cars during the 1950s.
A car is a large and expensive piece of machinery. It is usually used for business purposes, but it can be used for recreational activities as well.
In the United States, there are a number of different types of automobiles that are used for commercial and personal use. Some are manufactured by private individuals, while others are made by large corporations such as Ford and General Motors.
The automobile industry in the United States is divided into a number of industries, including manufacturing, sales, maintenance and repair, and service stations. There are also a number of other related industries, such as the insurance and finance sectors.